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Structural Data: Domestic buildings

Domestic buildings are those in which at least one half of the total usable floor space is dedicated to residential purposes (StaBu 2011Destatis 2015). Domestic buildings can be categorised according to various features. Here they are subdivided into one-, two- and multi-family houses. A further classification is undertaken according to building age. The selected categories of building age reflect those commonly used in statistical surveys of the building sector (StaBu o. J.).

The one-, two- and multi-family houses presented here are so-called synthetic buildings. They are aggregate structures derived from various representative buildings with similar features. The calculated area, volume and material indicators (Gruhler, Böhm 2011a; Gruhler et al. 2002) can be used to answer diverse questions on the stock of domestic buildings. For example: Which materials are released during demolition? Can these be recycled, and which masses of recycled materials are required for new construction? (Deilmann et al. 2015; Deilmann et al. 2014; Schiller et al. 2015; Schiller et al. 2016; Ortlepp, Gruhler, Schiller 2016; Schiller, Müller, Ortlepp 2016)

One and two-family houses (O/TFH) classified by age

Up to the year 1960, the one and two-family house is a detached, semi-detached or terraced house with one or two storeys (buildings with only one storey generally with a converted attic), usually constructed in plastered masonry (undressed stone, brick, aerated concrete, sand-lime brick), sometimes with thermal insulation. 

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The one- and two-family house from 1961-1990 is a building constructed in the form of a detached, semi-detached or terraced house with one or two floors (buildings with only one floor generally with a converted attic), usually constructed in masonry (brick, aerated concrete, sand-lime brick) and partly in wood (wooden frame).

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The one- and two-family house from 1991 to 2010 is a detached, semi-detached or terraced house with one or two floors (buildings with only one floor generally with a converted attic), usually constructed in masonry (brick, aerated concrete, sand-lime brick) and partly in wood (wooden frame). 

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Multi-family houses (MFH) classified by age

Up to 1918 the typical multi-family house of the so-called Gründerzeit period (1870 to 1918) was two to four storeys high, arranged in open or closed blocks around a central courtyard. The buildings were either constructed from masonry (plastered or exposed brickwork) or masonry in combination with half-timbering. 

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The multi-family house from 1919 to 1948 is a building constructed from brick (plastered). It generally has three to four storeys and is arranged in blocks and terraces.

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Regarding multi-family houses in the period 1949-1978, we distinguish between East and West Germany.

The multi-family house 1949-1978 (East) is a building constructed of brick, of prefabricated blocks or panels. It generally has three to six storeys and is generally arranged in terraces or tracts. Open meandering arrangements are also common. 

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The multi-family house 1949 to 1978 (West) is a building constructed of masonry, of prefabricated blocks or panels. It generally has three to six storeys and is usually arranged in terraces or tracts. Open meandering arrangements are also common. 

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Regarding multi-family houses in the period 1979 to 1990, we distinguish between East and West Germany.

The multi-family house 1979 to 1990 (East) generally shows a panel-style design. It normally has five to six storeys and buildings are usually found in an open meandering arrangement or in terraces. 

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The multi-family house 1979 to 1990 (West) is generally constructed of brickwork and in panel style. It normally has three to five storeys and is normally free-standing. 

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The multi-family house from 1991 to 2010 is primarily constructed of masonry. It generally has two to four storeys and is normally free-standing.

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Comparison of one-, two- and multi-family houses

  • Wohngebäude Grundflächen

  • Wohngebäude Bauteilflächen

  • Wohngebäude Materialien absolut

  • Wohngebäude Materialien spezifisch

  • Wohngebäude Materialstruktur